03 - 07 December 2022
Imec will be present at the 2022 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) as (co-)author of no less than 21 papers, including 3 invited papers and two IEDM committee highlighted papers. Imec’s contributions show progress in logic, memory, interconnect, 3D integration and quantum computing technologies. The invited papers discuss devices for advanced RF and colloidal quantum dot for image sensor technologies. Serge Biesemans, senior vice president semiconductor R&D at imec, will take part in the panel “75 years of transistor technology – (no) time for retirement?”. Imec will also host two short courses: “Process Architectures Changes to Improve Power Delivery” by Geert Hellings, program director DTCO at imec, and “Innovative 3D Technologies for Memory-Compute Integration” by Geert Van der Plas, scientific director & program manager 3D system integration at imec. Ben Kaczer, scientific director, will give a tutorial on “FEOL reliability: from essentials to advanced and emerging devices and circuits”.
Capacitors based on trilayer stacks of TiO2/La-doped hafnium zirconate/Nb2O5 show record high remnant polarization 2Pr of 66.5 µC/cm2 after 3x106 cycles at 3 MV/cm or an endurance of up to 1011 cycles with a final 2PR of ~30 µC/cm2 at 1.8 MV/cm depending on the Hf and Zr precursors used.
In this paper, we will discuss the progress that has been made in upscaling GaN and InP to a Si platform as well as making them CMOS and 3D compatible to enable the heterogeneous systems that will be needed for 5G mm-wave and 6G sub-THz frequencies for high-capacity wireless communication.
We present a Monte Carlo thermal modelling framework with partial experimental validation suited for simulating complex 3D device geometries. Steady state and transient case studies on GaN HEMTs and InP nanoridge HBTs reveal peak temperature rises that are up to threefold larger than conventional predictions based on bulk diffusion.
Short-wave infrared (SWIR) range carries information vital for augmented vision. Colloidal quantum dots (CQD) enable monolithic integration with small pixel pitch, large resolution and tunable cut-off wavelength, accompanied by radical cost reduction. In this paper, we describe the challenges to realize manufacturable CQD image sensors enabling new use cases.
An innovative semi-damascene integration scheme enabling the new 4-track standard-cell routing architecture called VHV relevant for the beyond-2nm node is demonstrated. The required boundary between cells is built with two vias with zero-line extension facing each other and an aggressive T2T=8.9nm in between, all self-aligned to the top 18nm-pitch layer.
For the first time, we experimentally demonstrate the field-free switching in multi-pillar (MP) spin-orbit torque magnetic random-access memory (SOT-MRAM) devices, which are CMOS-compatible 300mm integrated perpendicular MTJs (p-MTJs). This FFS scheme is fully compatible with the standard integration process and the voltage-gated SOT (VG-SOT) switching in MP devices.
Organizers: Stefan De Gendt, imec and Suman Datta, Georgia Institute of Technology
In celebration of the 75th anniversary of the first working transistor, made by Walter Brattain and John Bardeen, IEDM will host an entertaining and insightful evening panel discussion on the importance and future of this vanishingly small and yet irreplaceable miracle technology for the next 75 years.
With imec experts Stefan De Gendt, fellow at imec and Serge Biesemans, senior vice president semiconductor R&D at imec
FEOL reliability: from essentials to advanced and emerging devices and circuits by Ben Kaczer, scientific director
When designing any new VLSI technology, a wide range of complex, mutually interdepend considerations related to the materials, processing, and electrical performance need to be optimized. Moreover, sufficient performance must be guaranteed for the entire expected lifetime of the end product. This essential reliability requirement unfortunately disqualifies many highly performing material combinations and device designs, thus making reliability a critical component of technology progress. In this tutorial we will argue that dependable long-term reliability projections based on accelerated tests can be made only if the true physical nature of the degradation is well understood. After a brief introduction to probability and statistics, we will discuss the main degradation mechanisms occurring in present-day and future Field-Effect Transistors (FETs), such as Nanosheets and Forksheets. These mechanisms include SILC (Stress Induced Leakage Current), TDDB (Time-Dependent Dielectric Breakdown), BTI (Bias Temperature Instability), RTN (Random Telegraph Noise), and HCD (Hot Carrier Degradation) with the accompanying Self-Heating (SHE) and will be linked with the underlying properties of defects. We will show that these defects play the essential role in many emerging technologies and applications, including CryoCMOS and 2D FETs, and are responsible for degradation variability in deeply scaled devices. Finally, we will discuss how device degradation can be accounted for in circuit simulations and show how in-depth knowledge of defect properties can be used to our advantage to design new devices and applications.
SC1-5: Process Architectures Changes To Improve Power Delivery by Geert Hellings, program director DTCO
Backside power delivery offers a solution for a challenge that has plagued VLSI technology since long. A traditional BEOL has to distribute a variety of signals across the chip: short range connections forming the fabric of logic cells, long busses moving data back and forth between the cores and the memories, clock signals and also power delivery. This has lead to a lot of compromises since each of these functions comes with different requirements (low Resistance, low Capacitance, low cross-talk, predictable insertion delay, …). Hence moving the power connections to the backside of the wafer allows to individually optimize the BEOL for signal distribution while optimizing the backside metals for efficient power delivery. This is of course a promising perspective. However it requires a great deal of process innovation e.g. wafer bonding, extreme wafer thinning, backside-to-frontside patterning alignment. Backside power delivery is such a profound modification that it enters at every abstraction level in a DTCO flow (Design Technology Co-Optimization). This short course will give an overview of the different process architectures that are being considered for backside power delivery: from Powervia, Buried Power Rail to direct backside contact and compare their properties in terms of process complexity, device performance impact and consequences at standard cell library and block level.
SC2-6: 3D System integration for memory compute applications by Geert Van der Plas, scientific director & program manager 3D system integration
To cope with ever more data processing needs, 3D integration has emerged as a prime technology to extend Moore’s law. In this presentation we will introduce system architecture concepts that improve memory compute capability: chiplets and 3D system on chip (3D-SOC). The chiplet approach enables larger amounts of compute to be combined with dense, high bandwidth memory. Currently chiplets are integrated side by side. Ultimately, they will be stacked in 3D. The 3D-SOC concept re-uses the system on chip approach, extending it to the third dimension. Compute and memory are co-designed, removing overhead of chip-to-chip interfaces to improve performance, power, area and cost. We will review the 3D technology roadmaps supporting the implementation of these system architectures. Silicon interposer and bridges integrated into advanced packages are key to realize the chiplet based systems. Fine pitch RDL first or last approaches offer alternatives to the Silicon based interconnect. Scaled die to wafer solder micro-bump and direct bonding interconnects increase interconnect density, increasing bandwidth. Wafer-to-wafer hybrid bonding offersthe highest interconnect density, reaching sub-micron pitches that enable fine grain partitioned 3D-SOC systems. We discuss recent progress and remaining challenges in technology development and design enablement. We explain how 3D system integration will be a key pillar of data-centric computation in the next era.