imec logo


IGZO-based DRAM for energy- and area-efficient analog in-memory computing

First experimental demonstration of multilevel, multiply accumulate operations on IGZO-based 2-transistor-1-capacitor (2T1C) and 2T0C cells


Indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO)-based two-transistor n-capacitor (2TnC) dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) cells are excellent candidates for analog in-memory computing.

They can accomplish the inference phase of machine learning applications much more efficiently than what is possible today.

In this article, the authors show how IGZO-based 2T1C and its capacitor-less variant (2T0C) can be optimized for high retention time. They demonstrate the possibility of multilevel programming and multiply accumulate operations – important steps towards industrial adoption.