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Intelligent instrumented Ankle Foot Orthoses

Choosing orthotics as a test case, the i2AFO project will develop a technology platform for the fabrication of 3D smart objects. The intelligent instrumented ankle foot orthosis (i2AFO) created will feature a flexible, stretchable polymer matrix. This matrix will contain sensors and other electronics to monitor and analyze the deformation of the AFO and hence the movement of a patient’s foot and ankle. The resulting analysis can then be utilized to create a more effective patient specific holistic therapy program for walking problems. The consortium will also develop energy-efficient software enabling cloud-based processing of data gathered from the smart AFO, providing feedback and monitoring to the patient and therapy team.

Flexible, wearable circuits

Recent innovations have made stretchable electronic circuits a reality. Electronics can be embedded in plastic sheets that can be shaped by heat into almost any desired shape without harming the electronic elements. These new technologies pose unique opportunities for medtech applications, such as personalized and mass-producible smart wearables. Other sectors poised to benefit from this technology include automotive, gaming, lighting, architecture and those involving user interfaces.

Intelligent patient monitoring

An ankle-foot orthosis is targeted in the i2AFO project, as these have been made using the vacuum thermoforming technique for decades and the process is well understood. AFOs pose unique follow-up and monitoring problems, since doctors are unable to observe their effectiveness in everyday life outside of a complex laboratory. Adding sensors to AFOs composed of thermoformed and stretchable elements makes them intelligent and offers an optimized way for medical professionals to monitor their patients. Until recently, prototypes of AFOs that incorporated sensors were both uncomfortable and impractical.

Clinically-validated technology

The i2AFO consortium has identified four main technical goals:

  • successfully incorporate electronics into a thermoformable plastic sheet;
  • integrate sensors, electronics, data processing and wireless transmission capabilities;
  • design algorithms that map sensor data to orthotic movement;
  • validate the orthotic in a clinical setting for at least three patients.

Multidisciplinary expertise in human health and computing

Partnerships with local hospitals will supply the gait and kinetic modeling expertise, along with specialized clinical environments needed for AFO validation. Technology collaborators bring sensors, data processing, deformable electronic circuitry, wireless communication and orthotics design to the project.


Intelligent instrumented Ankle Foot Orthoses.

i2AFO is an imec.icon research project funded by imec and Agentschap Innoveren & Ondernemen.

It started on 01.05.2017 and is set to run until 31.10.2019.

Project information


  • ACB
  • V!GO
  • vzw Sint-Lodewijk
  • UZ Gent


  • imec - CMST
  • imec - IDLab - UGent


  • Project lead: Miguel Vermandel
  • Research lead: Jan Vanfleteren
  • Innovation manager: Piet Verhoeve